Difference between lithium iron battery and ordinary battery

Release Time: 2022-05-07
1、 Carbon battery
The scientific name of carbon battery is neutral zinc manganese dioxide dry battery. The simplest identification method: the model on the battery skin is R6 + suffix (No. 5) / R03 + suffix (No. 7), which is this kind of battery. The suffix s means ordinary, P means high power, C means high capacity, etc. Carbon battery has low discharge power and poor discharge capacity, so it is only suitable for low power consumption appliances, such as clocks, remote controls, etc. In addition, the negative pole of carbon battery is the battery shell. After discharge, electrolyte leakage often occurs due to the rupture of the shell, damaging electrical equipment. The biggest advantage is that the price is cheap. The unit price on the market is often less than one yuan, or even less than 50 cents (of course, the quality is hehe).
2、 Alkaline battery
Alkaline battery, also known as alkaline dry battery, alkaline zinc manganese battery and alkaline manganese battery, is the best variety in the commercialized zinc manganese dry battery series at present. The model of alkaline battery is LR6 (No. 5) / LR03 (No. 7), and the prefix l stands for alkaline (a "L" Kaline). Of course, there may be a suffix after the number, but it's not common. The alkaline battery adopts electrolytic manganese dioxide to make a ring positive electrode, and the zinc paste configured with zinc powder and additives is used as the negative electrode. Due to the strong conductivity of electrolyte, the surface area of positive and negative materials is much better than that of carbon battery, and the promotion of electrochemical reaction of zinc manganese system under strong alkaline conditions, the output power and capacity of alkaline battery are much better than that of carbon battery. Alkaline batteries are more suitable for high-power appliances than carbon batteries. However, with the development of digital technology, many appliances can be called electric tigers, such as high brightness LED flashlight, flash lamp and so on. The current of these electric appliances is often 1500 Ma, and the general alkaline battery may also be embarrassed.
The leakage of carbon and alkaline batteries has always been a headache for consumers. Needless to say, the carbon battery uses the negative zinc consumed continuously in the discharge process as the shell, which determines that the shell is likely to break and leak liquid in the later stage of discharge. After all, the reaction does not necessarily occur so evenly.
Although the alkaline battery adopts a sealed battery structure, the alkaline solution has a characteristic called wettability and strong adsorption capacity on the metal surface. This causes the so-called creeping alkali phenomenon. You can also do simulation experiments at home. Find a stainless steel chopstick and vertically insert a thicker aqueous solution of soda ash. As a result, the solid soda will climb up along the metal chopsticks. This phenomenon is actually due to the concentration gradient caused by the evaporation of water in the soda solution above the liquid level adsorbed on the metal surface, which makes the soda solution below "sucked" up and evaporated. This also happens from time to time in alkaline batteries, which is what we often call battery leakage. The leakage is not terrible, but mainly corrodes expensive electrical appliances. Electrolyte leakage.
In addition, when the alkaline battery is over discharged, the negative electrode generates hydrogen, and the internal pressure of the battery increases. In order to avoid battery explosion, the pressure relief valve located at the negative electrode will be opened, and the exhaust will certainly leak at the same time. Battery leakage is a favorite and extremely painful thing. It may corrode the electrode and affect the contact, or it may corrode the circuit board and scrap the expensive electrical appliances. Therefore, for a long time, an important improvement goal of the battery is that there is no liquid leakage.
3、 Ni MH rechargeable battery
In fact, NiMH batteries are not so easy to buy. I often visit shopping malls and supermarkets in Gulou District of Jinling City, and only find two nickel hydrogen rechargeable batteries for sale, and each family has only one nickel hydrogen battery to choose from. The reason is that for ordinary users, Ni MH batteries need to be used together with chargers, and the single investment is too large, which is not cost-effective for users with low-intensity use. The positive electrode of Ni MH battery is nickel hydroxide and the negative electrode is hydrogen storage alloy. The output voltage of Ni MH battery is more stable than that of Zn Mn dry battery, and the output power is far higher than that of Zn Mn dry battery. However, the self discharge of Ni MH battery is higher than that of Zn Mn dry battery, even in low self discharge electrical equipment. This will significantly reduce the effective capacity of the battery for electrical equipment with low intensity and long-term use. In addition, the capacity of Ni MH battery (2000-2500mah) is slightly lower than that of alkaline battery under low current discharge (2500-3000mah). Therefore, if Ni MH battery is used in clocks and other electrical appliances, the service time is often lower than that of alkaline battery, which is also easy to cause over discharge of Ni MH battery and damage to electrical equipment.
4、 New generation dry battery: lithium iron battery
Lithium iron dry battery, full name: lithium iron disulfide dry battery. Because this kind of battery adopts new internal materials and has a variety of characteristics, it is often called the third generation dry battery in the industry. Compared with some alkaline batteries in 1949, the emergence of lithium iron batteries is indeed very novel. The reversibility of the reaction of positive iron disulfide in discharge is narrow, so it is not appropriate for this special battery to be developed into a rechargeable battery, and the usable capacity can be improved by using lithium metal which is not conducive to charging but has high capacity as the negative electrode. This makes this battery very suitable for disposable battery applications and the best alternative after carbon battery and alkaline battery. Due to the violent reaction between lithium and water, the electrolyte of lithium iron battery adopts organic solvent containing lithium salt rather than aqueous solution. Compared with carbon battery and alkaline battery, this new type of lithium iron battery eliminates the risk of liquid leakage from material. The weight of lithium iron disulfide battery with the same size is only half of that of alkaline battery, but the total discharge energy is more than 25% higher than that of alkaline battery. It has an obvious discharge voltage platform (about 1.45v), so the discharge voltage of lithium iron battery is more stable than that of alkaline battery. The discharge power is significantly higher than that of alkaline battery. It is especially suitable for heavy load occasions, such as flash lamp, electric tools, electric toothbrush, adult toys and children's toys. At the same time, compared with alkaline battery, its liquid leakage rate and self discharge are lower, so it also has certain advantages for low-power electrical appliances, but the biggest factor restricting its popularization is the high production cost, and the unit price of battery can be more than 100% higher than that of alkaline battery.
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